Project Title: Building Products using Kota Stone Cutting and Slurry Waste

Principal Investigator: Dr. (Mrs.) Rajni Lakhani

Co-Investigator: Er. Rajesh Kumar


  • To develop the formulation for tiles using Kota stone cutting/slurry waste
  • To develop the formulation for Blocks (Load bearing, Non load bearing and Thermal insulated type) and its optimization
  • Scale up of the developed process up to pilot level


  • Floor tiles- Light traffic loads & heavy traffic conditions
  • Paver blocks- Non traffic to Heavy traffic conditions
  • CFC blocks- Infill material & brick replacement

About the Technology:

The amount of wastes generated during cutting, querying, sawing and polishing processes from flaggy limestone industries easily reaches up to 10-12 MT per year. It is well known that flaggy limestone slurry consist of 85% water and 15% flaggy limestone powder. Thus, total solid waste generation easily reaches about 4.5-5 MT annually i.e. approx. 75-80% of total mined out reserves. It contains around 38% lime, 15-18% silica, 3-4% alumina and around 1-2% iron as FeO and Fe2O3. Thus, looking to such huge quantity of wastes as minerals or resources, there is a tremendous scope and need for recycling and using such stone wastes to develop sustainable building materials.

Utilization of Kota stone waste (KSW) for the development of value added building products has been done by studying the engineering and chemical properties of Kota stone waste. Replacement of Kota stone waste has been done with fine aggregate as well as coarse aggregate; based on particle size distribution and packing density to develop more compact-high strength and durable heterogeneous concrete mass to develop various building products.

Technology specification:

Cement Concrete Flooring Tiles

Physical requirements



Heavy duty



Dimensions, mm (L*B*T) 300*300*22 300*300*22
Resistance to wear, mm 0.11 0.08 3.5& 2, Max.-GP & HD
Straightness,% 0.44 0.41 1.0, Max.
Water absorption, % 5.40 4.82 10.0, Max.
Wet transverse strength, MPa 3.50 5.54 3.0, Min.

Lightweight Blocks (Density 300- 1000 kg/m3)

CFC Blocks Properties IS: 2185 (iv) & 6598 CFC Block using KSW
Dry density, kg/m3 300-1000 308-1005
Compressive strength, MPa, Min. 0.25-3.50 0.38-6.75
Thermal conductivity, W/m.K, Min. 0.07-0.42 0.05-0.33
Water absorption, %, Max. 12.50-20 10-19


Salient Features:

  • Product : Floor-cum-wall Tiles, Paver & CFC Blocks
  • Size of Tiles & CFC Blocks (L*B*T) : 300* 300* 30 mm & 400*200*200 mm respectively
  • Wet transverse strength (Tiles) : 3.50 – 5.54 MPa
  • Compressive strength (Cellular blocks) : 0.38-6.75 MPa
  • Grade & Thickness for Paver Blocks : M30 to M50 with thickness from 50mm to 100mm
  • No. of working days : 300 per annum
  • Land area required : Approx. 500 m2
  • Capacity : 5000 unit per day (Minimum)
  • Shift : 1 shift of 8 hours per day

Economic Aspect:

Profitability as compared to market tiles, paver& CFC blocks: ~30-35% ; on Annual turnover

Status of development:

The technology entitled, “Building Products using Kota Stone Waste” has been transferred to Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board, Jaipur on 08th Aug.’2017.

Two such plants have been approved in Kota by Govt. of Rajasthan under Start-up-project.


Tiles, Paver blocks & Lightweight Blocks

Laying of Paving B​locks at the Entrance of OBM Group Building​ ​​in CSIR-CBRI